Superabsorbent polymers also known as SAPs are polymers (polymers are large molecule or macromolecule which is composed of many repeated subunits such as polystyrene or natural biopolymers (DNA and proteins) these substances are fundamental to biological structure and function) that can absorb and retain extremely large amounts of a liquid compared to their own mass. Polymers (natural and synthetic) are created by the process of polymerization of many small molecules such as monomers (molecule that can chemically bind two or more molecules to form a polymer). Superabsorbent has the ability to absorb water is due to the property of ionic concentration of the aqueous solution. Water-absorbing polymers known as hydrogels, which when cross-linked absorb aqueous solutions through hydrogen bonding with water molecules.
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Superabsorbent polymers can absorb around 500 times of liquid than its actual weight (30 to 60 times than its actual volume) and converting itself complete (99.9%) into liquid. However, when these superabsorbent polymers are put into 0.9% saline solution their absorbent property drops to more than 50 times of its actual weight. Absorbent or swelling capacity of the superabsorbent polymers are controlled by the types of cross-linking polymers used to make the gel. Low-density cross-linked polymers generally have higher absorbing and swelling capacity and vice-versa.
Iodine is a non-metallic element with symbol I and atomic number 53. It is one of the elements in group of elements, called halogen in the periodic table. Iodine is one of the rare elements found in seawater, seaweed, and in some minerals. It is one of the essential trace elements needed in regular diet for human nutrition, but iodine is toxic in its elemental form. Some of the properties of iodine are dark gray color, lustrous solid with a faintly bluish tinge and after heat, much of the substance turns directly into a vapor.
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Iodine has versatile applications in many industries from medicine, electronics to water disinfection equipments. Iodine and its derivatives are use in X-Ray contrast media, biocides, antiseptics and disinfectants, pharmaceutical, salt iodization, polarizing films for liquid crystal displays (LCD), chemicals, herbicides, industrial catalysts, animal nutrition, biocides and nylon stabilizer.
Electric vehicles are powered by electric motors, which uses energy from rechargeable batteries. Electric vehicle are more user and environmental friendly as compared with gasoline based vehicles. These vehicles do not produce any tailpipe emissions, reduces dependency on oil and are cheaper to operate. Based on their power source, there are three types of electric vehicles: directly powered from an external power station, powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source and powered by an on-board electrical generator. Electric vehicles are very popular in low power and low range applications such as milt floats and golf buggies. However this technology is still in nascent stage for mainstream transportation, especially in developing countries. In recent years the electric vehicles segment has attracted the attentions of consumers as well as governments. According to a report by Electric Vehicle Initiative (EVI) and International Energy Agency (IEA), global electric vehicle sales became two folds between the year 2011 and 2012 and this growth is expected to be higher in coming years.
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Electric vehicle are manufactured in all major vehicle classes such as two wheelers, three-wheelers, small cars and LMVs. Based on the top speed/acceleration, electric vehicles are categorized as full performance battery electric vehicle, city electric vehicle and neighborhood electric vehicle.