Bacterial conjunctivitis is one of the common eye problems faced worldwide, usually caused by various bacterium such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Moraxella lacunata, Haemophilus influenza, and others (for instance, Chlamydia trachomatis, Proteus mirabilis, etc.). These organisms cause conjunctivitis with a higher level of redness and could spread through hand to the eye or sexual contact. Generally, bacterial conjunctivitis is acute as well as self-limiting and does not lead to any major health problem. Moreover, the disease can be treated on its own, hence the exact estimate of epidemiology of this disease has not been studied or established in many countries including the developed markets such as the U.S.Antibiotics in the form of ointment or eye drops are prescribed by ophthalmologists and optometrists for treating bacterial conjunctivitis.Increasing the incidence of bacterial conjunctivitis is the major driver of the bacterial conjunctivitis drugs market in the U.S.
The U.S. bacterial conjunctivitis drugs market has been segmented based on drug classes most commonly used for the respective treatment. Based on the same, the market has been segmented into fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides and others. Fluoroquinolones market for bacterial conjunctivitis has been further studied for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and besifloxacin. Aminolgycosides are further segmented into tobramycin and gentamycin. Similarly, erythromycin and azithromycin together represent the macrolides segment. Other antibacterials segment cumulatively comprisesbacitracin, doxycycline, polymyxin, and fusidic acid used for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Among these drug classes, the fourth-generation fluoroquinolones emerged as the segment leader accounting for over 70% of the total U.S. bacterial conjunctivitis drugs market in 2013. Owing to their high efficacy against antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and broad spectrum activity, fluoroquinolones were able to dominate the overall market in 2013. However, the market for fluoroquinolones is expected to decline due to the growing influx of generic formulations, growing prevalence of drug resistance bacterial strains, and imminent patent expirations of leading branded formulations such as Vigamox, Besivance, and Moxeza.
According to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the incidence rate of bacterial conjunctivitis in the U.S. was estimated to be 135 in 10,000 individuals. Furthermore, the article stated that the cost of treating bacterial conjunctivitis ranges from USD 377 million to USD 857 million annually in the U.S. It also quoted that majority of conjunctivitis patients are originally treated by primary care physicians rather than eye care professionals. Around 1% of all primary care office visits in the U.S. are related to conjunctivitis. Bacterial infestation is the second most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis and accounts for 50% to 75% cases among children. This pattern was observed more frequently from December 2012 to April 2013.Thus, potential incidence of bacterial conjunctivitis is one of the major drivers of the bacterial conjunctivitis drugs market in the U.S. However, increasing genericization of antibacterial drugs coupled with upcoming patent expirations,and such few prominent factors are weakening the growth of the market in the near future.
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Currently, the market is highly fragmented and competitive due to the involvement of both large and small pharmaceutical companies. Actavis plc (now Allergan plc), Akorn, Inc.,Bayer AG, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Perrigo Company plc, Pfizer, Inc., Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.are the major players operating in the bacterial conjunctivitis drugs market in the U.S. During the course of this study it has been observed that majority of the players are focusing on expanding their geographical reach and distribution network through mergers and acquisitions as well as through collaborations with other potential organizations operating in this market.
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